B. Gunock. University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
If 10 mg nolvadex amex breast cancer 2 cm lump, however generic 10 mg nolvadex with amex pregnancy depression, there is a r Chest X-ray: Abnormalities are only seen with large defects when cardiomegaly and prominent pul- monary vasculature may be seen buy nolvadex from india menopause or pregnant. Measurement of the size of the defect and the blood ﬂow allows prediction of the outcome. The shunting of blood from left to right increases the volume of blood passing through the right side of the Incidence heart leading to right ventricular volume overload and 10% of congenital heart defects. Prolongedhigh volume blood ﬂow through lungs can occasionally lead Sex to pulmonary hypertension due to changes in the pul- F > M monary vasculature similar to ventricular septal defects (see page 84). Aetiology Defects in the ostium primum occur in patients with Clinical features Down syndrome often as part of an atrioventricular sep- Atrialseptaldefectsareoftenasymptomaticinchildhood tal defect. On examination Pathophysiology there is a ﬁxed widely split second heart sound due to the The atrial septum is embryologically made up of two high volumes ﬂowing through the right side of the heart parts: the ostium primum and the ostium secundum, and the equalisation of right and left pressures during which forms a ﬂap over the defect in the ostium pri- respiration. A diastolic murmur may through the fossa ovalis and hence shunts blood away also occur due to ﬂow across the tricuspid valve. In normal individuals Rarely patients may present with paradoxical emboli at birth the vasculature within the lungs dilate at birth (where thrombus from a deep vein thrombosis crosses and hence the right heart pressures fall. Once the left the atrial septal defect and causes stroke or peripheral atrial pressure exceeds the right, the ostium secundum arterial occlusion). Ostium secundum tends to produce right axis Chapter 2: Congenital heart disease 87 deviation, whereas ostium primum produces left axis Neonatal coarctation is often associated with a patent deviation. Eighty per cent of cases occur in association with a Management bicuspid aortic valve. The defect may be closed using an umbrella-shaped Clinical features occluder placed at cardiac catheterisation. Traditional Proximal hypertension may cause headache and dizzi- open surgical repair requires cardiopulmonary bypass ness, distal hypotension results in weakness and poor pe- and may use a pericardial or Dacron patch to close the ripheral circulation. Surgicalinterventioninostiumprimumdefectsis are weak or absent and there is radiofemoral delay. Four- morecomplexduetoinvolvementoftheatrioventricular limb blood pressure measurement will demonstrate the valves. Coarctation of the aorta Investigations Deﬁnition r Chest X-ray may show left ventricular hypertrophy Localised narrowing of the descending aorta close to the and rib notching due to dilated intercostal arteries site of the ductus arteriosus. Pathophysiology Coarctation of the aorta tends to occur at the site of the ductus/ligamentus arteriosus, which is usually opposite Management the origin of the left subclavian artery (see Fig. The Surgical treatment is used in the majority of cases and left ventricle hypertrophies to overcome the obstruction is an emergency in coarctation complicated by a patent and cardiac failure may occur. The chest is opened by left lateral tho- develops with hypotension in the lower body. Prognosis Without treatment 50% of patients die within the ﬁrst year of life from cardiac failure and complications of hypertension such as intracranial bleeds. This reduces the right to left intracardiac shunt and provides some symptomatic relief. On auscultation there is initially a long systolic murmur across the pulmonary valve, which shortens as cyanosis develops. Spasm of the infundibular muscle in the right ven- tricular outﬂow tract results in further compromises the right cardiac outﬂow causing worsening cyanosis and often loss of consciousness. Investigations ChestX-rayoftenshowsaheartofnormalsizebuttheleft heartborderisconcave(bootshape)duetothesmallpul- r Right ventricular outﬂow obstruction (pulmonary monary trunk. Aetiology Embryological hypoplasia of the conus, which gives rise tothemembranousventricularseptum. OccursinDown Management r Symptomatic infants may require a Blalock–Taussig syndrome and as part of fetal alcohol syndrome. This provides a left to The pulmonary stenosis results in high right ventricular rightshunt replacing the duct as it closes. The degree of pulmonary stenosis isvariable(rangingfrommildtoatresia),thustheclinical picture ranges in severity. The right ventricular outﬂow Cardiovascular oncology tract obstruction is often progressive. Clinical features Atrial myxoma In rare severe cases cyanosis develops within days as the Deﬁnition pulmonary circulation is dependent on a patent ductus An atrial myxoma is a benign primary tumour of the arteriosus. More commonly presentation is later with heart most commonly arising in the left atrium. Initially it may only be present on exertion, but as the right ventricu- lar outﬂow obstruction is progressive cyanosis becomes Incidence evident at rest, and the characteristic squatting position Primarytumoursoftheheartarerare,butatrialmyxoma may be adopted. Chapter 2: Cardiovascular oncology 89 Aetiology Carotid body tumours The aetiology of atrial myxoma is unknown. Deﬁnition Tumour arising from chemoreceptors at the bifurcation Pathophysiology of the carotid artery. The tumour is usually located on a pedicle arising from the atrial septum, and can grow up to about 8 cm Incidence across. The pedicle allows the tumour to move within Rare the atrium resulting in various symptom complexes. If the tumour obstructs the mitral valve a picture similar to Aetiology mitral stenosis will occur. If the tumour passes through More common in people living at high altitude; it is the mitral valve, mitral regurgitation will occur. The tumour may also give rise to thrombosis due to altered Pathophysiology ﬂow patterns and resultant systemic embolisation. Local Carotid body tumours are hormonally inactive chemod- invasion and distant metastasis do not occur. The tu- by features of mitral stenosis with variable cardiac mur- mour tends to grow upwards towards the skull base. Thromboembolism may result from the abnor- Patients present with a pulsatile swelling in the upper mal ﬂow pattern through the atrium. It occurs in 40% neck at the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid and is a common presenting feature. Classically on palpation the lump is mobile from side to side but not up and down, and there may be an associated overlying carotid bruit. Echocardiography demonstrates common metastatic lymph node from a head and neck the mass lesion within the atrium. Macroscopy The tumour is usually a polypoid mass on a stalk, its sur- Microscopy face covered with thrombus. It is composed of is made up of connective tissue, with a variety of cell chief cells with clear cytoplasm and a round nucleus en- typessurrounded by extracellular matrix. Investigations Management Angiography shows a splaying of the carotid bifurcation The tumour is surgically removed under cardiopul- (lyre sign). Management Prognosis Surgical excision may be performed especially in young Five per cent local recurrence within 5 years. Inelderlypatientssurgicalremovalmay up with regular echocardiography is therefore indicated not be necessary.
Remarks – Levonorgestrel is a possible alternative when estroprogestogens are contra-indicated or poorly tolerated cheap 10 mg nolvadex mastercard pregnancy 5 months ultrasound. However discount nolvadex 20 mg on line pregnancy body pillow, it has a lesser contraceptive effect than estroprogestogens and requires taking tablets at a precise time (no more than 3 hours late) nolvadex 20mg lowest price menstrual molimina. It is therefore recommended to use an additional contraceptive method: condoms for 7 days and, if she has had sexual intercourse within 5 days before forgetting the tablet, emergency contraception. It is however recommended to administer the treatment up to 120 hours (5 days) after unprotected intercourse. Carry out a pregnancy test if there is no menstruation: • within 5 to 7 days after the expected date, if the date is known; • or within 21 days following treatment. Dosage – Child from 2 to 5 years: 3 mg/day in 3 divided doses – Child from 6 to 8 years: 4 mg/day in 2 divided doses – Child over 8 years: 6 mg/day in 3 divided doses age 0-2 years 2-5 years 6-8 years > 8 years Weight < 13 kg 13 - 20 kg 20 - 30 kg > 30 kg Oral solution 1 tsp x 3 2 tsp x 2 2 tsp x 3 Do not administer Capsule – 1 cap. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with severe hepatic impairment. If refrigeration is not available, oral solution kept below 25°C may be stored for 6 weeks maximum. Therapeutic action – Antimalarial Indications – Treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in combination with artesunate – Completion treatment following parenteral therapy for severe falciparum malaria, in combination with artesunate – Prophylaxis of falciparum malaria for non-immune individuals Presentation – 250 mg scored tablet Dosage and duration – Treatment of falciparum malaria (in combination with artesunate administered on D1, D2, D3) Child 3 months and over (≥ 5 kg) and adult: 25 mg base/kg as a single dose – Prophylaxis of falciparum malaria Child 3 months and over (≥ 5 kg): 5 mg base/kg once a week Adult: 250 mg base once a week Travellers should start prophylaxis 2 to 3 weeks before departure and continue throughout the stay and for 4 weeks after return. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with neuropsychiatric disorders (or history of), seizures, hypersensitivity to mefloquine or quinine; mefloquine treatment in the previous 4 weeks. However, given the risks associated with malaria, the combination artesunate- mefloquine may be used during the first trimester if it is the only effective treatment available. Therapeutic action – Analgesic – Antipyretic Indications – Severe pain – High fever Presentation – 500 mg tablet Dosage – Child over 5 years: 250 mg to 1 g/day in 3 divided doses – Adult: 500 mg to 3 g/day in 3 divided doses Duration – According to clinical response, 1 to 3 days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in case of gastric ulcer. Use only when usual antipyretics and analgesics (acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol) have been ineffective. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with active liver disease, history of drug-related liver disease, severe depression. Duration – A few days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to children < 18 years and to patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage, obstruction or perforation. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with hypersensitivity to metronidazole or another nitroimidazole (tinidazole, secnidazole, etc. Remarks – Storage: below 25°C – For the oral suspension: follow manufacturer’s instructions. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer: • to children under 6 months or patients with swallowing difficulties (risk of suffocation due to oral gel form); • in patients with hepatic impairment. If the foetus is dead or non-viable or viable but a caesarean section cannot be performed, reduce each dose by half and do not exceed 3 doses in total. At least 6 hours must have elapsed since the last administration of misoprostol before oxytocin can be given. It is adjusted in relation to the regular assessment of pain intensity and the incidence of adverse effects. If this is not available, use injectable morphine by the oral route: dilute an ampoule of 10 mg/ml (1 ml) with 9 ml of water to obtain a solution containing 1 mg/ml. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with severe respiratory impairment or decompensated hepatic impairment. The child may develop withdrawal symptoms, respiratory depression and drowsiness when the mother receives morphine at the end of the 3rd trimester and during breast-feeding. In these situations, administer with caution, for a short period, at the lowest effective dose, and monitor the child. Nevertheless, vitamin supplementation helps to prevent some deficiencies in people at risk (e. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with severe hepatic impairment, history of severe intolerance to nevirapine that led to permanent discontinuation of treatment. In these cases, stop taking nevirapine immediately and permanently; • gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, myalgia. If the enzyme level reaches 5 times the normal level, stop nevirapine immediately. In the event of restarting treatment after having stopped for more than 7 days, recommence initial 14-day phase. When half a tablet is required, use a cutter to cut the tablet into two equal parts. Dosage and duration – Child and adult: 300 to 500 mg/day in 2 divided doses, with a diet rich in protein, until the patient is fully cured Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Pregnancy and breast-feeding: avoid, except if clearly needed (safety is not established) Remarks – Nicotinamide is also called niacinamide. Never administer sublingually (risk of foetal death from placental hypoperfusion). They should not be used for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis as this requires topical treatment. The treatment should be discontinued gradually (10 mg/day for one week then, 10 mg on alternate days for one week). Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Administer with caution and monitor use in patients with epilepsy, diabetes, history of gastrointestinal bleeding or bipolar disorders. For information: – Child: initial dose of 3 to 4 mg/kg once daily or in 2 divided doses, increase to 8 mg/kg/day if necessary – Adult: initial dose of 2 mg/kg once daily at bedtime (up to 100 mg maximum), then, increase gradually if necessary, to the maximum dose of 6 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 divided doses. Duration – According to clinical response Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in respiratory depression. Dosage – Child: 3 to 8 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 divided doses – Adult: 2 to 6 mg/kg/day in 2 to 3 divided doses; do not exceed 500 to 600 mg/day Duration – According to clinical response Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in case of hypersensitivity to phenytoin. Combination with other drugs must be closely monitored (diazepam, phenobarbital, digoxin, corticosteroids, etc. Treatment of 1 to 2 days is typically sufficient when the patient is fully able to drink oral rehydration solution and can eat. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Reduce dosage in elderly patients and patients with renal impairment (risk of hyperkalaemia). Duration – According to clinical response and duration of diuretic treatment Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Administer with caution and reduce dosage in elderly patients and in patients with renal impairment (risk of hyperkalaemia). If immediate treatment not considered essential for fluke infections, it should be delayed until after delivery. If treatment lasts over 10 days, a high initial dose should be reduced as quickly as possible to the lowest effective maintenance dose. If the treatment lasts more than 3 weeks: do not stop abruptly, reduce the daily dose gradually. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with active peptic ulcer (except if ulcer under treatment); infections not controlled by a specific treatment; acute viral infection (e. Remarks – 5 mg of prednisolone has the same anti-inflammatory activity as 5 mg of prednisone, 0.
Hyponatraemia with Congestive cardiac failure purchase online nolvadex pregnancy options, cirrhosis purchase nolvadex 10mg on line breast cancer ribbon clipart, r In psychogenic polydipsia discount nolvadex 20 mg free shipping menstruation color, patients drink such large ﬂuid overload nephrotic syndrome Renal failure volumes of water that the ability of the kidney to ex- Severe hypothyroidism crete it is exceeded. The brain is most sensi- Opiates, ecstasy tive to this and if hyponatraemia occurs rapidly oedema develops, leading to raised intracranial pressure, brain- stem herniation and death. If hyponatraemia develops it is acute or chronic and whether there is ﬂuid depletion, more slowly, the cells can offset the change in osmolality euvolaemia or ﬂuid overload. This reduces the degree r Acute hyponatraemia is usually due to vomiting and of water movement and there is less cerebral oedema. The severity depends on the ceases and the kidneys rapidly excrete the excess water degree of hyponatraemia and the rapidity at which (up to 10–20 L/day). In severe cases, the patient may have seizures water there needs to be the following: r or become comatose. It is important to take a careful Adequate ﬁltrate reaching the thick ascending loop of drug history, including the use of any illicit drugs such Henle (where sodium is extracted to produce a dilute as heroin or ecstasy. This is impaired in renal failure and hypo- of ﬂuid depletion or ﬂuid overload (see page 2). Investigations r Adequate active reabsorption of sodium at the loop of To determine the cause of hyponatraemia the following Henle and distal convoluted tubule, this is impaired tests are needed: the plasma osmolality, urine osmolality by all diuretics. Almost all of the body’s potassium stores are intracellu- r Urine osmolality helps to differentiate the causes of lar, with a high concentration of potassium maintained hyponatraemia with a low plasma osmolality. If the urine ingcellularmembranepotentialandsmallchangesinthe is dilute, this suggests psychogenic polydipsia or ex- extracellular potassium level affect the normal function cessiveinappropriateintravenousdextroseordextros- ofcells,particularlyofmusclecells,e. Fluid reple- r Intake can be increased by a potassium-rich diet or by tion should lead to the production of dilute urine (low oral or intravenous supplements. Vom- In addition, thyroid function tests and cortisol should iting or diarrhoea can reduce total body potassium. AshortSyn- by the kidneys is controlled by aldosterone, which acts acthen test (see page 441) may also be indicated. Dis- Management turbances of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone sys- In all cases, treating the underlying cause successfully tem can therefore cause alterations in the potassium will lead to a return to normal values. In severe renal failure, when 90% of the renal r Fluid depletion is treated with saline or colloid re- function is lost, the kidneys become unable to excrete placement. Anticonvulsants may be In most tissues, including the kidney, potassium and necessary to treat ﬁts. Intravenous saline should concentration is high (acidotic conditions), the kidney be avoided and patients must adhere to a low-sodium excretes hydrogen ions in preference to potassium; in diet. In severe nephrotic syndrome with oedema, in- the tissues, hydrogen ions compete with potassium to travenous albumin may be required together with di- be taken up by the cells, so extracellular potassium con- uretics. As the acidosis is cor- rected, potassium is taken up by the cells and may cause Prognosis hypokalaemia. Conversely, in metabolic alkalosis potas- Acute severe symptomatic hyponatraemia has a mortal- sium is excreted in exchange for hydrogen ions, leading ityashighas50%. Chapter 1: Fluid and electrolyte balance 7 Insulin and activation of β2 receptors tend to drive may be a cardiac arrhythmia or sudden cardiac arrest. Investigations Hyperkalaemia U&Es, calcium, magnesium to look for evidence of renal Deﬁnition impairment and any associated abnormality in sodium, Aserumpotassiumlevelof>5. An arterial blood gas to look for aci- cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death without warning. This is a common problem, affecting as many as 1 in 10 Abnormalities occur in the following order: tall, tented inpatients. Patients may develop bradycardia or complete Aetiology heartblock,andifleftuntreatedmaydiefromventricular The causes are given in Table 1. Hyperkalaemia lowers the resting potential, shortens the cardiac action potential and speeds up repolarisation, Management therefore predisposing to cardiac arrhythmias. The ra- Ideally hyperkalaemia should be prevented in at-risk pa- pidity of onset of hyperkalaemia often inﬂuences the risk tientsbyregularmonitoringofserumlevelsandcarewith of cardiac arrhythmias, such that patients with a chron- medication and intravenous supplements. Once hyper- ically high potassium level are asymptomatic at much kalaemia is diagnosed, withdraw any potassium supple- greater levels. Foods high in muscle weakness or the potassium level is >7 mmol/L, potassium include bananas, citrus fruits, tomatoes and it is a medical emergency: salt substitutes. Thesecanberepeated transfusion of Rhabdomyolysis inhibitors whilst the underlying cause is addressed, but have only stored blood Digoxin toxicity Addison’s disease atemporaryeffect. Oral ion-exchange resins or enemas 8 Chapter 1: Principles and practice of medicine and surgery may be used to increase gastrointestinal elimination of repolarisation. Alkalosis also tends to promote the movement of K+ into cells, Hypokalaemia worsening the effective hypokalaemia. Deﬁnition r Increased digoxin toxicity: Digoxin acts by inhibition Aserum potassium level of <3. Incidence Clinical features This is a very common problem, occurring in up to 20% Hypokalaemia is often asymptomatic even when se- of inpatients. Symptoms include skeletal muscle weak- Aetiology ness, muscle cramps, constipation, nausea or vomiting The most common cause is diuretics. Pathophysiology On examination the patient may be hypotensive and Hypokalaemia causes disturbance of neuromuscular there may be evidence of cardiac arrhythmias such as function by altering the resting potential and slowing bradycardia, tachycardia or ectopic beats. Decreased Transcellular Increased intake movement output Investigations Usually Alkalosis Renal losses: diuretics, Apart from checking the serum potassium, U&Es, cal- iatrogenic: Insulin low serum cium and magnesium should be sent to look for other lack of oral treatment magnesium, renal electrolyte abnormalities. Ventricular/atrial prema- Malnutrition Conn’s/Cushing’s ture contractions or ﬁbrillation may be seen or torsades syndrome and 2◦ de pointes. Treat any life- Drugs: β agonists, threatening arrhythmias appropriately and give intra- steroids, theophylline venous potassium with continuous cardiac monitoring. Chapter 1: Fluid and electrolyte balance 9 The highest rate of administration of potassium recom- clinical examination as well as monitoring of serum elec- mended in severe hypokalaemia is 20 mmol/h: this is trolytes by serial blood tests. The administration of tients with mild-to-moderate hypokalaemia oral or in- wateralonewouldleadtowatermovingacrosscellmem- travenous potassium supplements are given. The serum branes by osmosis, such that the cells would swell up and potassium must be rechecked frequently, e. Itshouldberememberedthatdextroseisrapidly Intravenous ﬂuids metabolised by the liver; hence giving dextrose solu- Intravenous ﬂuids may be necessary for rapid ﬂuid re- tion is the equivalent of giving water to the extra- placement, e. If insufﬁcient sodium is in patients who are unable to eat and drink or who giveninconjunction, or the kidneys do not excrete the are unable to maintain adequate intake in the face of free water, hyponatraemia results. When prescribing in- problem, often because of inappropriate use of dex- travenous ﬂuids certain points should be remembered: trose or dextrosaline and because stress from trauma r Are intravenous ﬂuids the best form of ﬂuid replace- or surgery as well as diseases such as cardiac failure ment? For example, containhigh-molecular-weightcomponentsthattend blood loss should be replaced with a blood transfusion to be retained in the intravascular compartment. Additional potassium replacement is sure) of the circulation and draws ﬂuid back into the often needed in bowel obstruction, but may be dan- vascular compartment from the extracellular space. There has been no consistent drugs or intravenous nutritional supplements (total demonstrable beneﬁt of using colloid over crystalloid parenteral nutrition). Inaddition,theuseofalbumin r Patients at risk of cardiac failure (elderly, cardiac solution in hypoalbuminaemic patients (which seems disease, liver or renal impairment) require special logical)hasbeenassociatedwithincreasedpulmonary caution as they are more prone to develop ﬂuid oedema,possiblyduetorapidhaemodynamicchanges overload. The Fluid regimens: These should consist of maintenance choice of ﬂuid given and the rate of administration ﬂuids (which covers normal urinary, stool and insensible depend on the patient, any continued losses and all losses) and replacement ﬂuids for additional losses and patients must have continued assessment of their ﬂuid to correct any pre-existing dehydration.
Researchers who have investigated this idea think it is more likely that the virus is spread by sharing towels and other items around a pool or sauna than through water order 20mg nolvadex with mastercard menstruation heart palpitations. After that buy nolvadex 10mg fast delivery menopause uti, the bumps will begin to heal and the risk of spreading the infections will be very low safe 10 mg nolvadex pregnancy symptoms. Encourage parents/guardians to cover bumps with clothing when there is a possibility that others will come in contact with the skin. Activities: Exclude any child with bumps that cannot be covered with a watertight bandage from participating in swimming or other contact sports. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm running water after touching the bumps or discarding bandages. Contagiosum If you think your child Symptoms has Molluscum Contagiosum: Your child may have bumps on the face, body, arms, or legs. Avoid participating in - By touching or scratching your bumps and then swimming or contact touching another part of your body. After the bumps begin to heal, the risk of spreading the infection will be very low. Contact sports or using shared equipment: Avoid sharing towels, wash cloths, uniforms, clothing, or other personal items. It may take weeks to months to regain energy; however, this will vary from person to person. Less common problems include jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes) and/or enlarged spleen or liver. Since this virus does not live long on surfaces and objects, you need to be exposed to fresh saliva to become infected. Because students/adults can have the virus without any symptoms and can be contagious for such a long time, exclusion will not prevent spread. Sports: Contact sports should be avoided until the student is recovered fully and the spleen is no longer palpable. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm running water after any contact with saliva or items contaminated with saliva. If you think your child Symptoms has Mono: Your child may have a sore throat, swollen glands, Tell your childcare headache, fever, and sometimes a rash. Childcare and School: Less common problems include jaundice (yellowing of the No, as long as the child skin or eyes) and/or enlarged spleen or liver. Sports: Children with an Spread enlarged spleen should avoid contact sports - By kissing or sharing items contaminated with saliva. Call your Healthcare Provider ♦ If anyone in your home has symptoms of mononucleosis. Your child may need bed rest, to drink plenty of water, and to avoid some physical activities. Prevention Wash hands after touching anything that could be contaminated with secretions from the nose or mouth. Mosquito-borne diseases are viral diseases that are spread by infected mosquitoes. The many viruses have the potential of causing serious disease affecting the brain and central nervous system. Removal of potential breeding sites is important in preventing the spread of mosquitoes. Birdbaths, wading pools, dog bowls, and other artificial containers of water should be emptied weekly to eliminate mosquito-breeding areas. Mosquitoes breed in water and artificial containers, especially flower pots, birdbaths, cans, children’s toys, wading pools, tire swings, old tires, or anything that will hold a small pool of water should be emptied or discarded. Rarely, swelling of the spinal cord and brain (encephalitis), inflammation of the ovaries (oophoritis) or breasts (mastitis), and deafness may occur. Other examples of how the virus can be spread is through sharing toys, beverage containers, eating utensils, and smoking materials (cigarettes), and kissing. Exclusion will last through at least 26 days after the onset of parotid gland swelling in the last person who developed mumps. A blood test specific for mumps antibody should be done as soon as possible after symptoms begin. Sometimes, healthcare providers will obtain a second blood test 2 to 3 weeks later. Encourage parents/guardians to keep their child home if they develop symptoms of mumps. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm running water after contact with secretions from the nose or mouth. If you think your child Symptoms has Mumps: Your child may have swollen glands in front of and below the ear. Childcare and School: Contagious Period Yes, until 5 days after For 2 days before until 5 days after swelling begins. Call your Healthcare Provider If two or more cases of If anyone in your home: mumps occur in your ♦ was exposed to mumps and has not had mumps or childcare or school, public mumps vaccine in the past. Prevention All children by the age of 15 months must be vaccinated against mumps or have an exemption for childcare enrollment. An additional dose of mumps is highly recommended for kindergarten or two doses by eighth grade enrollment. When a mumps outbreak is identified, exemptions in childcare centers or schools will not be allowed. Students who refuse immunization should be excluded until at least 26 days after the onset of parotitis in the last person with mumps in the affected school or childcare center. Norovirus is often incorrectly called the “stomach flu”, although it is not caused by the influenza virus. In addition, fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and stomach cramps can occur. The illness can be mild to moderately severe with symptoms usually lasting 24 to 48 hours. Spread can occur when people do not wash their hands after using the toilet or changing diapers. People can also get sick by eating food items contaminated during preparation or serving. Person-to-person spread often occurs within families, schools, nursing homes, cruise ships, in childcare settings, and communities. No one with vomiting and/or diarrhea should use pools, swimming beaches, recreational water parks, spas, or hot tubs for 2 weeks after diarrhea and/or vomiting symptoms have stopped. Staff must avoid food preparation when diarrhea and vomiting are present and for at least 3 days after diarrhea and/or vomiting have stopped. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm running water after using the toilet and changing diapers and before preparing or eating food. Staff should closely monitor or assist all children, as appropriate, with handwashing after children have used the bathroom or been diapered. In the classroom, children should not serve themselves food items that are not individually wrapped. If you think your child Symptoms has Norovirus: Your child may have watery diarrhea, vomiting, and Tell your childcare fever.