While many physicians continue to rely on antibiotics in the treatment of strep throat purchase kamagra chewable 100 mg otc erectile dysfunction drugs in nigeria, in most cases antibiotics are not necessary purchase generic kamagra chewable pills erectile dysfunction causes uk. Strep throat is usually a self-limiting disease—meaning that it will resolve on its own with time—and most research has shown that clinical recovery is similar in cases in which antibiotics are prescribed and those in which they are not cheap 100mg kamagra chewable free shipping online erectile dysfunction drugs reviews. However, antibiotic administration does not signiﬁcantly reduce the incidence of these complications. The issue seems to be related to a combination of host defense factors and the particular strength (virulence) of some group A strep bacteria that are more likely to cause rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. In contrast, in settings in which rheumatic fever has become rare, the group A streptococcal strains causing pharyngitis are of relatively lower virulence in terms of causing rheumatic fever. If antibiotics are used or have been used, it is important to use a probiotic supplement containing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Probiotic supplementation is very important for preventing and treating antibiotic-induced diarrhea, candida overgrowth, and urinary tract infections. Although it is commonly believed that acidophilus supplements are not effective if taken during antibiotic therapy, research actually supports the use of L. A dosage of at least 15 billion to 20 billion organisms is required during antibiotic usage. We recommend taking the probiotic supplement as far between antibiotic doses as possible. After the antibiotic course is finished, a dosage of 2 billion to 5 billion live organisms is usually sufficient. Nutritional Supplements Vitamin C During the 1930s there was considerable interest in the relationship between malnutrition and the development of the complications of strep throat. Both experimental animal work and population- based surveys demonstrated a correlation between vitamin C deﬁciency and the development of these complications. Rheumatic fever is virtually nonexistent in the tropics, where vitamin C intake is higher; and 18% of children in high-risk groups have subnormal serum vitamin C levels. Unfortunately, this promising line of research appears to have been dropped, probably owing to the advent of supposedly effective antibiotics. Botanical Medicines The guidelines for enhancing the immune system, as presented in the chapter “Immune System Support,” are particularly well indicated for streptococcal pharyngitis. In addition, the botanicals goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and Echinacea species are well respected in the support of the immune system during strep infections. The berberine alkaloid of goldenseal exerts antibiotic activity against streptococci and, perhaps more important, has been shown to inhibit the attachment of group A streptococci to pharyngeal epithelial cells. To promote the spread of colonies, streptococci secrete large amounts of hyaluronidase. Echinacea also inactivates group A streptococci and reduces the pro-inﬂammatory response to strep infection10 as well as promoting greater ability of white blood cells to identify and destroy bacteria. South African Geranium Extracts of this African plant (Pelargonium sidoides) have been shown to exert a number of effects beneﬁcial in upper respiratory tract infections, particularly acute bronchitis, an indication for which it is an approved drug in Germany (see the chapter “Bronchitis and Pneumonia”). A stroke can be the result of a lack of blood ﬂow (ischemia) caused by blockage from a blood clot (embolism) or a hemorrhage (leakage of blood). Without oxygen, the nerve cells become damaged or die, and the affected area of the brain becomes unable to function. A stroke may result in an inability to move one or both limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see on one side of the visual ﬁeld. If the stroke is severe enough or occurs in a certain location, such as parts of the brainstem, it can result in coma or death. Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States and the third-leading cause of death. It must be administered within a few hours of a stroke to produce signiﬁcant beneﬁt. The results of stroke can affect patients physically, mentally, or emotionally, or in any combination of the three ways, and can vary widely depending on size and location of the lesion. The physical disabilities that can result from stroke include muscle weakness, numbness, pressure sores, pneumonia, incontinence, apraxia (inability to perform learned movements), difﬁculties carrying out daily activities, appetite loss, speech loss, vision loss, and pain. Emotional problems after a stroke can result from direct damage to emotional centers in the brain or from frustration and difﬁculty adapting to new limitations. Poststroke emotional difﬁculties include anxiety, panic attacks, flat affect (failure to express emotions), mania, apathy, and psychosis. Almost half of stroke survivors suffer poststroke depression, which is characterized by lethargy, irritability, sleep disturbances, lowered self-esteem, and withdrawal. Emotional lability, another consequence of stroke, causes the patient to switch quickly between emotional highs and lows and to express emotions inappropriately, for instance with an excess of laughing or crying with little or no provocation. While these expressions of emotion usually correspond to the patient’s actual emotions, a more severe form of emotional lability causes patients to laugh and cry pathologically, without regard to context or emotion. Some patients show the opposite of what they feel, such as crying when they are happy. Cognitive deﬁcits resulting from stroke include perceptual disorders, speech problems, dementia, and problems with attention and memory. A stroke sufferer may be unaware of his or her own disabilities, a condition called anosognosia. In a condition called hemispatial neglect, a patient is unable to attend to anything on the side of space opposite to the damaged hemisphere. Up to 10% of all stroke patients develop seizures, most commonly in the week subsequent to the event; the severity of the stroke increases the likelihood of seizures. Therapeutic Considerations For most stroke patients who suffer from poststroke disability, recovery is a concerted effort that involves physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language therapy. We recommend taking advantage of these services, as they can greatly aid the rehabilitation process. Medical care is often focused on preventing another stroke and most often utilizes anticoagulant therapy with warfarin (Coumadin) or antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel (Plavix), ticlopidine (Ticlid), and so on. These drugs are designed to prevent blood clots from forming and lodging in the brain, where they can produce another stroke. From a natural medicine perspective the goals are similar, but more focused on maximizing blood ﬂow and nutrition to the damaged areas. The general guidelines offered in the chapter “Cerebral Vascular Insufﬁciency” are valid here. Ginkgo biloba extract increases blood ﬂow to the brain, improves the production of energy within nerve cells, and favorably affects blood viscosity (thickness), resulting in improved blood ﬂow characteristics within the brain. Natural Antiplatelet and Fibrinolytic Therapy There are a number of dietary and supplements to reduce the aggregation of platelets as well as reduce the formation of ﬁbrin and thereby prevent blood clots from forming. The general dietary factors that reduce platelet aggregation and promote ﬁbrin breakdown (ﬁbrinolysis) are discussed in the chapter “Heart and Cardiovascular Health. Fish oil supplementation can deﬁnitely be used in combination with aspirin and other platelet inhibitors,2 but if several natural antiplatelet agents are used at the same time or if nattokinase is used, it is important to avoid the use of antiplatelet drugs (including aspirin).
Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles on the Internet Te general format for a reference to an entire Internet journal title buy generic kamagra chewable online erectile dysfunction my age is 24, including punctuation: - for a title continuing to be published: - for a title that ceased publication: Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on the Internet If a journal is still being published cheap kamagra chewable 100mg visa erectile dysfunction medications over the counter, as shown in the frst example order 100 mg kamagra chewable with amex impotence guilt, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in 1580 Citing Medicine example two, separate the beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen surrounded by a space. See also Chapter 1C Entire Journal Titles for additional examples of the specifc parts of a citation. Increasingly journals are published directly for the Internet to enable hyperlinking, to include complex graphics, and to run multimedia such as flm clips and sound. Volume and issue information has changed the most with Internet journals, particularly those without print counterparts. Many publishers omit volume and issue numbers, substituting an article numbering scheme or simply using the date the item was placed on the Internet as an identifer. A journal title on the Internet is cited similar to journals in print, but with these major exceptions: • Use the word "Internet" in square brackets as the Type of Medium afer the journal title. Many journal titles with both print and Internet versions do not carry the same exact content. If you viewed a journal title on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. However, it may be useful to begin a citation to an Internet journal by frst locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print publication, then add the Internet-specifc items. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. To cite all volumes for an Internet journal that changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. Journals that have migrated to the Internet from other formats or that maintain both print and online versions may not change titles, but may only have recent volumes available online. When citing the Internet version, give volume and date information for only those that are online accessible. For example: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Ofcial Journal of the National Kidney Foundation [Internet]. Do not confuse the publisher with the organization that maintains the Web site for the publisher. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note if desired. If a journal on the Internet does not have a formal title page or table of contents, look to the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser) to locate citation information. Note that the rules for creating references to journal titles are not the same as the rules for cataloging them. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on the Internet. Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on the Internet Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O) 1582 Citing Medicine Title for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Title • Enter a journal title in the original language • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the title • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears • Follow a non-English title with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets • End the journal title with a space Specific Rules for Title • Journal titles not in English • Journals appearing in more than one language • Journals appearing in diferent editions Box 64. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Example: Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Internet journal title continuing to be published under another name Edition for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition) • End the edition statement with a space Specific Rules for Edition • Non-English words for editions Box 67. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Dutch Uitgave Uitg Editie Ed Finnish Julkaisu Julk French Edition Ed German Ausgabe Ausg Greek Ekdosis Ekd Italian Edizione Ed Norwegian Publikasjon Pub Portuguese Edicao Ed Russian Izdanie Izd Spanish Edicion Ed Swedish Upplaga n. Jones • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor" • End editor information with a period Specific Rules for Editor • Names not in English Box 68. Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Some journals on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the place of publication. Internet journal title with geographic qualifer added to place of publication for clarity 14. Internet journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Publisher for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Publisher • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. Some journals on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the name of the publisher. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Designate the agency making the publication available as the publisher and include distributor information as a note, if desired. For journals with joint or co-publishers, use the name provided frst as the publisher. Internet journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Volume Number for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Volume Number • Precede the number with "Vol. Internet journal title with standard volume and issue number Journals on the Internet 1599 23. Internet journal title with volumes viewable for online version diferent from print version 25. Internet journal title with date only, no volume, issue, or article numbers Issue Number for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Issue Number • Precede the issue number with "No. Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Internet journal title with date only, no volume, issue, or article numbers Date of Publication for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Include the month and year the journal began to be published, in that order, such as May 2004 • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. Enter closing volume and issue information followed by a comma and the closing date. Specific Rules for Date of Publication • Multiple years, months, or days of publication • Non-English names for months • Seasons instead of months • Options for dates Box 86. Internet journal title with other division to date than month or season 1606 Citing Medicine Date of Citation for Journal Titles on the Internet (required) General Rules for Date of Citation • Give the date the journal was seen on the Internet • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5 • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the frst three letters, such as Jan • Place citation date information in square brackets • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket Examples for Date of Citation 1. Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Internet journal title published in two or more equal languages Notes for Journal Titles on the Internet (optional) General Rules for Notes • Notes is a collective term for further useful information about the journal • If a journal was published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continues: ", such as Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Specific Rules for Notes • System requirements • Other types of material to include in notes Box 94.
Colchicine may also cause bone marrow suppression buy kamagra chewable cheap online impotence clinic, hair loss buy 100 mg kamagra chewable with mastercard erectile dysfunction talk your doctor, liver damage 100 mg kamagra chewable erectile dysfunction pump uk, depression, seizures, respiratory depression, and even death. Once the acute episode has resolved, a number of measures are taken to reduce the likelihood of recurrence: • Drugs such as allopurinol or febuxostat to keep uric acid levels within a normal range • Controlled weight loss in obese individuals • Avoidance of known precipitating factors such as heavy alcohol consumption or a diet rich in purines or refined carbohydrates • Low doses of colchicine to prevent further acute attacks Several dietary factors are known to lead to the development of gout or trigger an attack: alcohol, especially beer and hard liquor; high-purine foods (e. Individuals with gout are typically obese; prone to hypertension, metabolic syndrome,3 and diabetes;4 and at a greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Thiazide and loop diuretics also are associated with a higher risk of incident gout and a higher rate of gout flares. The conventional medical treatment of gout often relies excessively on drugs that inhibit xanthine oxidase. The drug allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally occurring purine in the body), has been the mainstay treatment for decades. Lead Toxicity A secondary type of gout, sometimes called saturnine gout, can result from lead toxicity. Historically, saturnine gout was caused by the consumption of alcoholic beverages stored in containers with lead in them. An unexpected and fairly common source of lead appears to be leaded crystal; port wine, for example, takes on lead when stored in a crystal decanter. Even a few minutes in a crystal glass results in a measurable increase in the level of lead in wine. While lead levels in the general population have decreased substantially since it was banned from gasoline, those working with aviation fuel are still exposed. The mechanism of action is related to a decrease in excretion of uric acid by the kidneys. Dietary Considerations The dietary treatment of gout involves the following guidelines: • Decreasing purine intake • Eliminating alcohol • Achievement of ideal body weight • Liberal consumption of complex carbohydrates • Low fat intake • Low protein intake • Liberal fluid intake Low-Purine Alkaline-Ash Diet A low-purine diet has been the mainstay of the dietary therapy of gout for decades. Today, however, many physicians prefer to lower uric acid levels by prescribing potent drugs rather than subjecting the patient to the inconvenience and deprivation associated with a purine-free diet. However, dietary restriction of purines is still recommended to reduce metabolic stress. These include organ meats, yeast (brewer’s and baker’s), and smaller ﬁsh such as sardines, herring, and anchovies. These include dried legumes, spinach, asparagus, ﬁsh, meat, poultry, shellﬁsh, and mushrooms. An alkaline-ash diet is recommended in the dietary treatment of gout because a more alkaline pH increases uric acid solubility. An alkaline-ash diet was shown to increase uric acid excretion from 302 mg per day at pH 5. High-Purine Foods • Anchovies • Consommé • Meat extracts • Organ meats (brain, kidney, liver, sweetbreads) • Roe (fish eggs) • Sardines (and other small fish such as herring and mackerel) • Yeast Moderate-Purine Foods • Asparagus • Fish (larger species) • Legumes • Meat • Mushrooms • Peas (dried) • Poultry • Shellfish • Spinach Low-Purine Foods • Eggs • Fruit • Grains • Milk • Pasta • Nuts • Olives Alcohol Alcohol consumption increases uric acid production by accelerating purine nucleotide degradation and reduces uric acid excretion by increasing lactate production, which impairs kidney function. This explains why alcohol consumption is often a precipitating factor in acute attacks of gout. In many individuals, eliminating alcohol is all that is necessary to reduce uric acid levels and prevent gout. Weight reduction in obese individuals signiﬁcantly reduces serum uric acid levels. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein Reﬁned carbohydrates and saturated fats should be kept to a minimum, as the former increase uric acid production while the latter increase uric acid retention. In addition, one of the key dietary goals in the treatment of gout appears to be to enhance insulin sensitivity. Nutritional Supplements Fish Oils Fish oil supplementation may prove useful in the treatment of gout. Folic Acid Folic acid has been shown to inhibit xanthine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for producing uric acid. Vitamin C Megadoses of vitamin C should be avoided by individuals with gout, as vitamin C may increase uric acid levels in a small number of individuals. Five hours after cherry consumption, plasma uric acid levels had decreased by an average of 30 mmol/l. Inﬂammatory markers (plasma C-reactive protein and nitric oxide concentrations) decreased slightly after the 1. Cherries, hawthorn berries, blueberries, and other dark red and blue fruits are rich sources of anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins. These compounds are ﬂavonoid molecules, which give these fruits their deep red-blue color and are remarkable in their ability to prevent collagen destruction. Celery Seed Extract The compound 3-n-butylphthalide (3nB) is unique to celery and is responsible for its characteristic ﬂavor and odor. A celery seed extract standardized to contain 85% 3nB and other celery phthalides has shown beneﬁt in the treatment of rheumatism—the general term used for arthritic and muscular aches and pain. Subjects noted signiﬁcant pain relief after three weeks of use, with an average 68% reduction in pain scores and some subjects experiencing complete relief from pain. Most subjects achieved maximum beneﬁt after six weeks of use, although some did notice improvements the longer the extract was used. Celery seed extract appears to be particularly helpful for sufferers of gout, as 3nB lowers the production of uric acid by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase. In addition, liberal amounts (4 to 8 oz per day) of cherries, blueberries, and other anthocyanoside-rich red or blue berries should be consumed; their extracts can be substituted. In most cases the hair loss is not severe; rather, the patient perceives that hair loss is occurring at an increasing rate. Hair loss is difﬁcult to quantify, and it is certainly not a life-threatening disorder. Physiology of the Hair Cycle The human scalp has between 100,000 and 350,000 hair follicles, which undergo cyclical phases of growth and rest. It is during this migratory phase that the stage is set for new hair to come in after the original hair is lost. Age, various diseases, and a wide variety of nutritional and hormonal factors inﬂuence the duration of the hair cycle. It involves taking a few strands between the thumb and foreﬁnger and pulling on them gently. Hairs in the anagen phase should remain rooted in place, while hairs in the telogen phase should come out easily. Knowing approximately how many hairs were pulled, and the number that came out, indicates the percentage of hair follicles in a telogen state. For example, if 20 hairs were pulled and 2 came out, then the frequency of telogen hair follicles is 10%. As a very rough guide, a 10% telogen frequency is excellent, up to 25% is typical, and over 35% is problematic. Types of Hair Loss Hair loss—the medical term is alopecia—can be broadly divided into two types: focal (small patches) or diffuse (all over the head).